Romanian teenagers and the Internet: The Internet in the life of romanian adolescents
Romanian Adventist Theological Institute, Cernica, Ilfov, Romania
Since the beginning of the `90s, the Internet has revolutionized the
communication world in unprecedented ways. No other medium managed to
achieve this, and the Internet along with other
technologies has opened channels of communication different from all
the classic ways of communicating. Its potential of altering
traditional communication systems turned into an important subject of
research in the field of communication.
The research this article is based upon is included in the wider trend
of social-constructivist paradigm, which looks upon people as if they
were the ones to build their own realities and social identities, by
the means of interacting with others and projecting their cultural
expectations, respecting the general rules of social life at the same
time. Looking at it from this perspective and trying to explain the
agenda of common internet users, regarded from the point of view of
their relationship with technological systems, A. Feenberg (1991, 1999)
came up with the `critical theory of technology' according to which these
systems are not able to define in an exhaustive way the necessary
conditions for the existence of the subjects involved in it. People use
to offer their own explanations and they generate their own
applications when it comes to technological systems, but most of the
times these aspects turn to be far away from their initial goals.
According to Feenberg, they are not irrational alterings, the way the
dominant ideology might portray them, but rather a pattern of
rationalism, deeply rooted in the alternative values and interests set.
Based on this idea, the users, the clients and even the `victims' of
technological systems engage in appropriating technology in a creative
way, causing its reform and hence making it appear more humanized, even
Starting from this wider perspective, M. Bakardjieva and R.
Smith (2001) introduced the term of `generative process of technology',
in order to characterize the dialectic nature of technology, regarded
as a system that not only determines, but is also able to transform,
inside the wider ring of technology at the disposal of people. This
vision allows us to see the Internet -at the same time- as a system
that determines what the users can do and cannot do, endorsing an
`already given' design, and as a system able to alter during its usage.
The same authors refer to the `little behaviour genres' emerging as a
result of several typical usage situations - ranging from the loisir
when at home to the usage in an
organized system, at work - but each one of these situations
represents a result of the social environment, determined by the larger
process of social reproduction (Bakardjieva & Smith, 2001, p. 68).
Starting from these premises, the idea that the Internet users are
indeed an active force in the `generative process of technology' might
emerge, as a hypothesis, but not in any random or voluntaristic way.
The socio-biographical situations in which the subjects find
themselves determine specific `little behaviour genres', where the ways
of using technology are also included. If certain conditions are met,
such genres are able to induce changes in the technology itself.
However, their existence is a factor that brings its contribution
towards creating possibilities for the development of the
One might argue that the researchers from the communication
field found themselves somehow unprepared in front of the impact of the
Internet development. Besides the initial difficulties triggered by
conceptualization (for instance, there were questions dealing with the
classification of the Internet as medium: a mass communication agent,
or a way of interpersonal communication?), then there were the
difficulties in using it, explaining all the aspects, the theories and
the theoretical models existing at that time. Despite the fact that
some theories related to communications can be used when
studying the Internet's effects and implications, we are in
need of new concepts and theoretical models, through which the
evolution, the usages and the effects of this new medium could be
interpreted. Although some progresses have been made lately, due to
several approaches from the communicational, sociological,
psychological perspective and so forth, at present the development of
technology (of the medium itself), is still ahead of the researches
regarding its social impact.
Objectives and Methods
This article presents some of the results of a
whose objectives attempted to identify: a) the extent to which
Romanian adolescents have access to the Internet and the
characteristics of this access; b) the patterns of using the Internet
and the conveyance of a `portrait' of the Internet uses, of the place
of the Internet consumption into the larger media consumption, on one
hand, and in the customs of interpersonal communication, on the other
hand; c) the effects the Internet has on young people, both on the
personal plan, and on the plan of social micro-relationships, not to
mention the wider plan of social life; d) the expectations towards the
Internet - not only personal, relational and social ones, but also
the expectations related to technological evolution.
The specific objectives of this paper are identifying: the frequency and
the duration of adolescents use of the Internet, as well as determining
the most frequent used applications; access to the Internet and the
characteristics of it; the significance of the Internet for the
Romanian adolescents (what does the Internet mean for them?).
The methods we used were specific both to the qualitative and
quantitative research: in-depth interviews and sociological survey.
Using the qualitative method, 30 respondents have been interviewed
in-depth, chosen according to two main conditions: a) still studying
in high-school; b) using the Internet. As both the qualitative and
the quantitative researches aimed samples of respondents from
, a third criterion was added: the respondents should live and
study in Bucharest. Specific criteria for choosing the respondents
consisted of independent variables, such as gender, year of study,
profile of the high
. The interviews were conducted between March-June 2007.
The sociological survey was fulfilled on a representative sample
of teenagers from Bucharest, and the sampling technique was the
`strata' one. The sampling schema was complex, involving a bistadial
sampling procedure, combined with proportional strata operations,
cluster selection and random simple selection (standing for the last
selection type). `The universe of the research' or the reference
population was made up of adolescents living in Bucharest, studying in
high school. `The strata' the sampling was based upon were: a) the form
of education (highschool, with three variants: `day'
education, `evening' education and reduced frequency,
respectively vocational/professional schools); b) the year of study
(with five subcategories - 9,
13) and c) the `profile' (with
eight types/substrata - human sciences, real sciences, informatics,
economic, artistic, sports and technology). The highschools where from
the respondents have been selected, the classes (parallel classes, such
as - A, B, C, D and so on), as well as the pupils who took part in
the survey were selected by random allocation. The field survey was
carried out in November 2007, in 60 highschools and vocational schools
, and the volume of the final samples reached 1008 subjects.
The frequency and the duration of adolescents use of the Internet
The results of both the qualitative and the quantitative
research show the fact that adolescents can be considered `intense
Internet consumers'. 29 out of 30 in-depth interviewees use the
, and our sociologic survey
showed us that more than three quarters of the teenagers use the
Figure 1: The frequency of Internet use by adolescents (percents)5
Therefore, 75,8% of the subjects use the Internet daily, and almost
17% do not use it on a daily basis, but at least once a week they use
the new medium (8,8% of them get online 4-6 times/week).
The data provided by the in-depth interviews allowed us to
find out what is `hiding' behind these figures. Besides noticing that
they use the Internet daily, we were interested to find out what this
`every day' means. The qualitative research revealed the fact that the
duration of using the internet varies from one hour to 10 or even 13
hours daily. Some of the in-depth interviewees were not able to
estimate how much time they spend online: they state that their PC or
laptop connected to the Internet is switched on `all day long', without
using it continuously, because there are other activities going on
during this time, or they stop using it in order to perform other
"It's switched on all the time"
(11 grade, 18
years old): "[When do you use the
Internet?] Every day (...) Ever since I come back from
school, until I hit the sack. But I do not stay at my desk all the
time, sometimes I go out and I leave it switched on, because the
Messenger runs all the time. I chat all the time; this is some sort of
addiction. If I do not get online for one day or two days, I feel I am
(11 grade, 18
years old): "Using it passively or actively?... Because,
practically, the access to the Internet begins with every on-switch
of the PC and it is on all the time. Hence, I am online all the time.
When it comes to browsing the Internet pages, or communicating via
Internet, this means about two-three hours per day, on
(10 grade, 17
years old): "I own a PC, it's in my room, and the Messenger
is on all the time..."
(9 grade, 16
years old): "I switch it on in the morning, I leave it like
that and when they call... I mean, I do not stay in front of the PC
all day long, only when I have something to do or other things like
that. I do not use it only for chatting".
As one might easily see after reading the latest two statements, the
Internet is equated, many times, with the Messenger or with the
activity of `chatting, communicating'. Anyway, communicating with other
people, especially instant communication is the main factor driving
towards adolescents using the Internet.
Going back at the amount of time spent online every day, we find the
examples offered by teenagers quite relevant - taking into account
the fact that they spend all their free time, or almost all of it,
online. Even on workdays, when they have classes, some teens spend even
10-13 hours/days, as one can notice in the examples provided by the
second cassette, or at least four hours per day, as cassette number
"10-13 hours daily"
(10 grade, 17
years old): "13 hours every day, usually; it depends on how
much free time I have when I am at home, but on average I would say
about 10 hours".
(11 grade, 18
years old): "It depends on the time. There are times when I
use it 10-12 hours daily... It depends on my training
4-5 hour per day, sometimes even more"
(12 grade, 19
years old): "On average, about five hours every day
(...) During weekends, even more, and weekly about 40 hours".
(12 grade, 18
years old): "About five-six hours per day".
(11 grade, 17
years old): "About five hours every day, maybe six or four,
it depends on the day (...) During holidays there are days when I
get to stay online from dawn till evening, mmm, I mean, using the
(9 grade, 16
years old): "On the average - four-five hours/day,
sometimes even more than this. And every week this means a lot, around
35 hours, according to my assessment".
(9 grade, 15
years old): "I guess it is around five hours/day. (...)
In weekend I get to spend more time online".
Starting from these examples, one might notice the subjects
differentiate between using the Internet during workdays, weekends and
holidays. This is precisely why the questionnaire we used during our
survey had a decomposed item of three periods of time, emphasizing the
differences between the adolescents' agenda: workdays (Monday to
Friday), weekends and holidays. We underlined this difference due to
the fact that our previous qualitative research, as well as
most of the studies referring to mass media consume - show
that the period of time assigned to the media is not a homogenous one,
being correlated to people's daily agenda.
Figure 2: Duration of the Internet usage according to adolescents' agenda
As one might easily notice in this graphic expressing the results of our
survey, more than half of the respondents are Internet power users
(spending more than three hours per day on the Internet), even on
workdays, when they have to go to school the next day. Thus, the
cumulative percents expressing the subjects who use the new medium for
six hours/day, four-six hours/day and three-four hours/day reaches
52% during workdays. The percent gets even higher when it comes to
using the Internet on weekends and holidays: 66,8% of the respondents
use the Internet for more than three hours every day during the
weekend, and the percent gets grow to 71,9% during holidays. This
growth shows us that adolescents feel constrained by the school
program. One should also take into account the `intensive internet
consumption' during holidays: almost half of the teenagers (45%) spend
more than six hours per day online when they are during holidays.
Furthermore, this percent also is significant during weekends (33%),
and on workdays, when 17,9% of the teenagers use the Internet for more
than six hours per day, although they have to go to school the next
All the in-depth
interviewees subsequently answered that they
get online from home: "home" is the main location from where the
Internet is being used, even the only place,
most of the times. In some cases, the
subjects presented other locations too, such as
school, Internet Cafes, friends. The school
is mentioned only a couple of times as location for the Internet usage,
and when they get online from that location they do not do it in
educational purposes (they do not use it in order to learn something
new or help the educative process developing during school program). On
the contrary, using the Internet from school appears to be an illicit
action, taking place during the breaks or after the informatics classes
are over, so the educative process had already reached its end.
Usually, they use it to check the mail boxes and the messages sent to
them from different web sites:
"At school, only during break time"
(11 grade, 18
years old): "At school, only during break time, provided
that the teachers allow us. [From the
classroom?] No, at the lab,
during the 10 minutes long break, they allow us to get online and do
whatever we want. [And would you rather use those ten
minutes to get online?] No.
Honestly speaking, 10 minutes it's not enough times for what we are
interested to do online. Anyways, there's not much to do in 10
On the other hand, when they are at `home',
all the interviewees use the
Internet, some of them do it only
from home. The respondents use the Internet all by themselves; using it
with someone else is an exception, not something happening frequently.
The exceptions happen when friends are visiting, when getting online
together is a habit for checking the Messenger or the messages on the
sites they have subscribed to. `The norm' is accessing the Internet
when alone, and most of the respondents (24 out of 30, in the case of
in-depth interviews) from ones room. Sometimes the teens' room turns
into an exclusively private place, as Oana states:
"I prefer to get online when I am alone, from my own private space"
(11 grade, 18
years old): "I get online using the PC in my room, this is
my private personal space and no one interferes with it (...) I
have my own room, my TV set, my PC, my phone, my bed, my books -
everything in there belongs to me. And I usually connect to the
Internet from my room, it's my own private
space, where I am alone. So there is no one beside me, unless, let us
say, I might invite someone to visit and we see some websites".
The survey confirmed the results we got during our in
depth-interviews, as 87% of the respondents confirmed that they get
online from their homes:
Figure 3: Locations to Internet access by the adolescents
The high percentage (87%), shows us the fact
that there is a high degree of connectivity to the Internet (at least
in the families of teenagers), despite the fact that about four years
ago, in 2004, a national
showed that the percent of the degree of
connectivity to the Internet was of only 6% (11% in urban areas and
1% in rural ones), in the households where there was at least one
child aged between 6-18 years.
The major differences between the data achieved by the two surveys can
be explained by appealing to two elements: the difference between the
reference population (our survey was focused on respondents living in
Bucharest, while the one that took place in 2004 was at national
Romanian level, and the statistic data show us that Bucharest is
leading the ranking referring to Internet connections), and the second
element refers to the three year interval between the two researches,
which turned out to be a good time for altering the peoples'
conceptions in what the Internet connectivity is concerned.
Furthermore, as we envision adolescents, we have to take into account
the greater pression they put on their parents, so that they can get an
Internet connection at their place (usually cable). But pressure aside
(one could resist to it), the parents willingness to provide their
children with an Internet connection can be explained by the image of
`encyclopaedia of all encyclopaedias' that the Internet has achieved.
As our research has revealed the ambivalent character of the Internet
(medium of information and communication, at the same time) - is
responsible for this opening towards the Internet: the parents
appreciate its informative features, while the teens value its
The most used applications/programs of the Internet
The item referring to the most used
applications/programs of the Internet
was assessed using a hierarchic
, and these are the results:
Figure 4: The most frequent used applications of the Internet by adolescents
This graphic strengthens an already established hierarchy,
conveyed by the in-depth interviews: for
adolescents, the Internet means
communication, entertainment and access to information. In order to
communicate, the leading program, ahead of other IM programs, is Yahoo
Messenger. 96,3% of the respondents designated it the main program
that justifies the usage on the Internet. Yahoo Messenger means
communication, this is its very essence, and it does not deal only with
instant communication, in real time (and here we include written
communication, voice to voice calls from one PC to another, and visual
communication via webcam). They also communicate the features of their
personality, preoccupations and frames of mind, through the means of
avatars and displayed messages, their constancy versus frequent change
and so on.
The next two applications popular among teens are the "download" and
the "network games" - both of them can be included in the field of
`entertainment', as the Internet users have labelled it, while the next
three items of the hierarchy give meaning to the `information' field:
useful information, pieces of information for the school activities,
various other types of information (related to interests, personal
preoccupations, hobbies and so forth). The other applications mentioned
in the graphic subscribe both to communication (such as the e-mail,
chats, IMs, forums, blogs) and to information (access to other mass
media types, browsing from one page to another) - but the latest
ones might as well be associated to entertainment.
The significance of the Internet for the adolescents
In order to find out what the Internet means for the Bucharest
teenagers we asked them, during the sociological survey, to
characterize this new medium of communication using maximum five words.
The results are being shown in the next
Figure 5: Terms that characterizes the best the Internet
As one might easily notice, communication
is the first word mentioned by 61,5% of the subjects.
Anyway, as our research has shown so far,
adolescents think that the
Internet facilitates the communication between people and it changes
it, at the same time, and the interviewees consider that it becomes
`improved' this way. The previously shown hierarchy (see figure 4) is
confirmed for another time, because the next places are also being
secured by entertainment activities (the
title is mentioned by 60,6% of the
subjects, and 49,4% of the respondents indicated the word
, that secured the forth
place in the hierarchy) and informing
chosen by 58,4% of the interviewees).
The next four words from the hierarchy, chosen by close percents
of the respondents do not represent features or `objective', concrete
definitions of the Internet, but symbolical definitions. For
39,7% of the respondents, the Internet mean the knowledge
. This word can be associated both
to `informing' (finding out new things and memorizing them) but also to
`communicating' (getting to meet new people). 38,3% of the respondents
associated the word necessity
Internet, so they regard the Internet as being an integrated and
indispensable part of life. Another symbolical significance associated
to the Internet, revealed also before by the qualitative research, is
- 34,3% of the respondents
considered that it defines the Internet in the best way. Finally, the
fourth word of this set - relaxation
was mentioned by 31,4% of the subjects, and this significance can be
associated both to communication and to entertainment.
Other features chosen by teenagers in order to characterize the
Internet: utility, readiness, interaction,
can be regarded as positive aspects of the new medium. The same applies
to the characteristics mentioned further, in a set of four words, or at
least the first three terms, because globalization is an ambivalent
concept, being regarded, at least by some of the analysts, as a
negative phenomenon that characterizes the nowadays world: fantasy, proximity, escape, and globalization.
Finally, what appears to be significant in our research is the
fact that the terms that stand as negative characteristics/aspects that
can be associated (and many specialists, but especially
non-specialists in socio-human sciences associate them in virulent
critics) of the Internet, are in fact a dwindling minority when it
comes to the words adolescents
associate to the Internet. Many people criticizing the Internet assert
that it generates and/or facilitates the distance between people. Only
3% of our subjects chose the distance
word that might characterize the Internet. The critics also mention
that the Internet encourages and determines the lack of interaction
among people, the solitude
, but only 3% of
our respondents see things this way. Many people talk about the reality
created by the virtual world itself, by the Internet, as a `parallel
reality' that damages people's lives. Only 2,5% of the respondents
chose the sintagm parallel reality
order to define the internet. So do the ones that criticize this
technology, they see it as if it were another world, another reality,
able to waste people's lives.
Only 1,9% of the respondents chose this term. Small percents (under
2,2%) referred to other terms, such as stress
- this shows us
that adolescents think that the
Internet is mostly a positive medium, being associated with positive
words, such as communication, entertainment, informing (it facilitates
and improves them), and also with utility, relaxation, fantasy,
freedom, necessity, knowledge and interaction.
Our research reveals the fact that
adolescents are Internet power
users. For many of them, staying online turned into the only way of
spending their free time. There are high percents of teenagers using
the Internet daily, and their consuming grows during weekends and
holidays - and this shows that they are being conditioned by their
In many cases, `the Internet is on all day long', even on
weekdays (though the pupils have to go to school the next day), and
despite the fact that they do not use it continuously. For some
subjects of our research, the Internet seems to offer a kind of
psychological safety: they are being `connected' all the time and want
to stay connected, even when they are not in front of the PC; this
shows their desire of staying connected to the virtual world. When they
break from it and then come back, after the interrupted
connection, they want to stay in touch with everything that
happened during their absence.
One might ask oneself, at this point: what makes the Internet so
important in teenagers' lives? What does the Internet offer
them, what makes them wish to stay online all the time and spend so
many hours online on a daily basis? We can find some answers when
interpreting the results of our research regarding what does the
Internet mean to teenagers, what is the significance they offer to this
There might be the argue that the Internet offers youngsters
many things they want. First of all, it gives them the possibility of
communicating - free of charge - with their friends or with other
teenagers. It is already an axiom, the fact that communication is
fundamental for people. In particular, for the group of population that
makes up our target -
adolescents - communication is
a way of living. The Internet offers
adolescents this possibility of
communicating, not only verbal communication (with multiple
possibilities included - written and oral communication), but also
non-verbal (the web-cam
s make the
communication through mimics and facial expressions possible).
Communicating via Messenger gives the teenagers the possibility of
offering others information about their personality, their interests
(general or on the spot ones), their tastes and so forth. Communicating
via websites such as Hi5, for instance, is complex: some sort of
miniature radiography of the personality of the owner of the page. Such
a page offers others details on its owner: whether it is an introvert
or an extrovert, whether he/she has many friends or not, if it is a
popular person or not, not to mention the details connected to the
favourite books, music, the teenagers' category where one belongs (for
instance, rockers are a category that does not mix up with housers or
hip-hoppers and so forth).
Communicating over Internet means not only keeping in touch with
the friends and the people one knows in `real life', but also
communicating with `virtual friends'. Most of the
adolescents prefer relationships
and friendships that exist in real life that is way most of the time
`the virtual friends' turn into real friends. However, many teenagers
bestowed the power of `knowing' upon the Internet - and they were
also referring to meeting new people: Internet facilitates it. We were
talking about the possibilities of telling others about ones tastes,
interests, personal preoccupations - they are extremely diverse,
multiple, and teens have the chance to meet other teenagers like them.
Taking into consideration this point of view, communication over
Internet means more than communicating via phone (and replacing it,
because the Internet provides free calls, they only have to pay for the
monthly subscription): the telephone does not offer the possibility of
meeting other people, at least not on a wider scale, and on the
Internet one is not limited to the verbal communication.
Many times, the Internet is being regarded as the equivalent of
communicating - for instance, when being asked about the Internet,
the teenagers' answers involved (Yahoo) Messenger. This application is
used active (sometimes is equated with the proper use of the Internet)
and intensive (as many adolescents told us, they sometimes have over
six online conversations simultaneously). This fact entitled us to say
that the Internet, indeed, concur to communication facilitating (in
adolescents' terms), but also to changing it. Communication over the
Internet is a `transformed' communication.
Besides communicating via Internet,
adolescents use it in order to
inform themselves and for entertainment. Practically, the possibilities
for entertainment offered by the Internet have no limit, and most of
them are not available in any other mass media genre. For instance, the
network games offer teens the possibility of competing against
each other, testing their abilities and intelligence (when it
comes to strategy games) or their knowledge, memory, logical thinking
or intuition (general knowledge games). On the other hand, the Internet
is a gate of access towards music and movies, two of the major
preoccupations of adolescents. The
TV and radio stations also broadcast such shows, but on the Internet
one might find whatever one wants, and it can be downloaded, not only
seen. The TV and the radio impose a limit - the one of seeing some
things that has already been rotated and set in a program - but the
Internet offers the `freedom'. People can choose the movie they want to
see or the music they want to hear, and teens appreciate this freedom.
Information is also easier to assimilate from the Internet. By the
means of the Internet, adolescents
get to know information that might be useful for school, for their
future job, for their general knowledge, information regarding their
own interests, news and so on. Besides, they have the freedom of
choosing the pieces of information they are interested in, without
feeling constrained by a program or a certain horary, such as news
broadcasts shown on TV.
The Internet has turned into an integrated part in
adolescents' life, in their
quotidian `rituals' and as one of our interviewees has said `we cannot
imagine life without the Internet'. We should emphasize the fact that
many teenagers do not see any harm or anything wrong in what the
Internet is concerned. One possible explication states that they grew
at the same time with the Internet: for them it is not a new medium, it
is just part of their daily life and routine and they associate it only
with positive words. Many adults went into overdrive when classifying
the Internet as a dangerous medium, because there are no restrictions
and no censorship, a space where freedom is not well understood, a
factor leading to stress and to waste time, a way of distancing the
people, a space in which human interactions are lost, in which the
ignorance is promoted and the desire of human beings to learn is
destroyed. Our research proves the fact that most of the teenagers do
not associate any of these negative aspects with the Internet. On the
contrary, they associate it with the utility and relaxation, with
fantasy and with freedom - as a fundamental human value, exclusively
positive. For adolescents, the Internet is a space favouring knowledge,
as opposed to ignorance, a space where one can relax, instead of
getting stressed, and the reality provided by the Internet has turned
into more than an intrinsic part of their life, so no one can classify
it as being `parallel' or illusionary.
The Internet has turned into a routine for teenagers, it became an
`ordinary' routine, as opposed to `the extraordinary'. Many teenagers
became a kind of `specialists' when it comes to routinely usage of the
Internet, and this means many times focusing on the communication with
friends, first of all. As I already stated before, communication via
the Internet is a sort of `transformed communication'. Thus, this
particular `specialization' itself turned into the paradox of using the
Internet and dealing with its effects: the more young people focus on
`communicating' and get to spend more time chatting with friends
(generally using IM programs), the lonelier they become - and they
would rather use the internet all by themselves, from the privacy of
their own room. In this case, one might ask this question: where does
the truth stand? Does the Internet facilitate communication and social
relationships (as many teenagers reckon) or, on the contrary, it acts
like a barrier in their way, by encouraging solitary life, in front of
the PC or - depending on how one views things - behind the screen
of a monitor? This problem, like many others, might represent a
challenging research subject for all socio-human sciences.
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reasearch is named The social and cultural impact of the
Internet on Romanian teenagers, financed by
The National Grant of
Research CEEX-ET no. 172/2006-2008.
of financial reasons.
depending on these variabiles and taking into account the general level
structure of the category of population, our in-depth interviews'
sample consisted in: according to gender, 16 girls and 14 boys;
according to year of study, 7 pupils in the 9th grade, 8 in the 10th
grade; 7 pupils in the 11th grade; 8 pupils in the 12th grade;
according to the profile of the highschool, 7 pupils studying at a
highschool with mathematical profile, 8 in humanistic profile
highschool, 4 pupils studying at a technical highschool, 4 studying at
an art highschool, and 3 in sports highschool.
102 highschools and vocational/professional schools in Bucharest.
means `I do not know/I do not answer'
cassettes contain quotes from the answers provided by the in-depth
interviewees; the graphics show the results of the sociological survey.
studies at a sport highschool.
conducted by MMT (Metro Media Transilvania) and
Gallup for CNA (Consiliul Na tional al Audiovizualului).
http://www.cna.ro/cercetari/sondaje/rapfinrom.pdf, last accession 15
them to provide an answer out of 13 variants, 5 answers according to
their opinions; we got 4891 answers; the figure presents percents per
interviewees - on each line.
was measured by asking the question: What's the word
that characterizes the Internet in the best way, in your view?'. The
respondents have been provided with a list of 23 words, and they were
asked to choose maximum five answers out of them, according to their
opinion. So it was a close-ended question, with multiple answers,
with a nominale scale. As a result of the research we obtained 4624
answers, and the percents from the graphic are being calculated per
respondents - on each line.